Alumina is one of the most widely used ceramic materials as catalysts, catalyst supports and absorbents, and also wear resistant coating. This study focused on fabricating and characterizing of alumina ceramic nanoparticles fabricated using new and simple sol-gel method. Aluminium oxide (Al2O3) nanoparticles were synthesized by iron (III) nitrate 9-hydrate as precursor. Physicochemical properties were done using X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), field effect scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). As there are many forms of transition aluminas, XRD technique was used to identify α-alumina and γ-alumina. The mean particle size of the sphere-like as-prepared sample was around 28 nm estimated by XRD technique and direct TEM observation. The surface morphological studies from SEM depicted grain particles with less agglomeration to sphere-like shape nano-sized Al2O3 by increasing annealing temperature. The obtained prticles are spherical and in non-agglomerated state. EDS shows peaks of aluminium and oxygen in prepared Al2O3.