Characterization of nano-biocomposite films reinforced with nanofibrillated cellulose and montmorillonite as a potential application for Food packaging industry

Document Type: Research Paper


In this study, polyvinyl alcohol- Nanofibrillated cellulose –Montmorillonite (PVA-NFC-MMT)
and Ethylene-vinyl acetate- Nanofibrillated cellulose –Montmorillonite (EVA-NFC-MMT) nanocomposites
containing 2% weight of NFC and MMT were prepared by melt blending method. Then, the effect of
NFC and MMT as reinforcing materials on biodegradability, morphology, and mechanical, thermal and
barrier properties of films was investigated. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy images of
PVA-NFC-MMT and EVA-NFC-MMT indicated simultaneous uniform dispersion of NFC and MMT in the
polymer matrix leading to the highest values of transparency and strength compared to control samples.
Results for Differential Scanning Calorimetry indicated an increase in glass transition temperature and
the crystallinity of PVA-NFC-MMT and EVA-NFC-MMT, compared to films without NFC and MMT.
Oxygen permeability was decreased from 28.5 and 760 cc/ in pure PVA and EVA to 3.7
and 114 cc/m2. day.atm in PVA-NFC- MMT and EVA-NFC-MMT, respectively. Compared to the control
sample, the tensile strength of PVA-NFC-MMT and EVA-NFC-MMT was increased by 20 and 44.4%,
respectively. Biodegradability tests of films under soil indicated the improved degradation of PVA and
EVA due to the simultaneous presence of NFC and MMT in such a way that they were degraded by 9.56
and 8.36%, after 120 days under soil burial conditions, respectively.